Bay Of Bengal – WorldAtlas

A bay is outlined as a coastal water physique that connects to the primary water physique, similar to a lake, ocean, or a bigger bay. Though they type in numerous methods, the world’s largest bays just like the Gulf of Guinea, Bay of Bengal, and the Gulf of Mexico shaped by plate tectonics. Bays are of various sizes, with the bigger ones known as sea, gulfs, bight, or sound.

The Bay of Bengal is the Indian Ocean’s second-largest subdivision after the Arabian Sea. It has a floor space of two,600,000 km2 and stretches over a most size of two,090 km and a most width of 1,610 km. This bay has a mean depth of two,600 m and a most depth of 4,694 m. The Bay of Bengal is the world’s largest water physique known as a bay.

The place Is The Bay of Bengal?

Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal 

The Bay of Bengal types the northeastern portion of the Indian Ocean. It’s shared by the Southeast and South Asia nations and separated from the Burma Sea (Andaman Sea) to its east by the Nicobar Islands and the Andaman Islands. The bay’s southern restrict is between Sangaman Kanda in Sri Lanka and Sumatra, Indonesia.

The Bay of Bengal is certain by a number of Asian nations, together with India to the northwest and west, Myanmar to the east, Bangladesh to the north, Sri Lanka to the southwest, and Indonesia to the southeast. India’s Nicobar and Andaman Islands additionally border the bay on the east. The bay hosts the world’s largest mangrove forest (Sundarbans) and longest seashore (Cox’s Bazar).

The Local weather Of The Bay Of Bengal

The Bay of Bengal is very liable to the formation of tropical cyclones.

The local weather of the Bay of Bengal may be outlined as a monsoon local weather. Between November and April (winter season), a continental high-pressure system on the bay’s north causes the northeast monsoons to type. The rain-bearing southwest winds prevail throughout summer season (June to September). Cyclones happen between April and Might (spring) and October and November (fall). The Bay of Bengal’s monsoon strikes northwestward, putting the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in Might and mainland India earlier than the tip of June.

Historical past Of Tropical Storms And Cyclones In The Bay Of Bengal

Cyclone Amphan
Damages attributable to Cyclone Amphan in Kolkata, India. Editorial credit score: Roop_Dey /

Tropical cyclones can happen all year long on the Bay of Bengal and the neighboring Arabian Sea. Nonetheless, tropical cyclones are most typical between April and June and October and December. A few of the world’s deadliest and strongest tropical cyclones type on the Bay of Bengal. The area has skilled a few of the most intense, devastating, and costliest cyclones and storms in historical past.

The bay’s most intense tropical cyclone, referred to as the 1999 Odisha Cyclone, shaped on October 25, 1999. It originated from a conviction space within the Sulu Sea on October 21 and moved in a west-northwesterly path, strengthening right into a cyclonic storm by the following day. By October 28, it had attained a brilliant cyclonic storm depth. The cyclone peaked the next day with a wind pace of 160 mph, reaching Odisha with the identical depth. The storm dissipated per week later, on November 4, 1999. In accordance with India Meteorological Division, the tropical storm resulted in 9,887 fatalities and broken $4.44 billion price of property. In addition to India, the storm impacted Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Thailand.

The 1970 Bhola Cyclone is taken into account the deadliest within the bay’s historical past. It struck West Bengal and Bangladesh (then East Pakistan) on November 11, 1970, killing at the very least 500,000 individuals. The vast majority of the individuals died from the flooding of many of the Ganges Delta islands.  The 1970 Bhola Cyclone shaped on November 8, 1970, on the Bay of Bengal’s central components and intensified because it traveled northwards. It attained its peak two days later with a wind pace of 115 mph and reached East Pakistan’s coast on November 11 within the afternoon.

Cyclone Amphan, a more moderen tropical cyclone on the Bay of Bengal, is taken into account one of many costliest cyclones in historical past. The tremendous cyclonic storm occurred in Might 2020 and precipitated in depth injury in Bangladesh and West Bengal. The damages are estimated to price over $13 billion, surpassing the 2008 Nargis Cyclone. Cyclone Amphan originated about 300 km east of Sri Lanka’s industrial capital Colombo on Might 13, 2020. It intensified on Might 17, growing right into a extreme cyclonic storm. The cyclone reached its peak on Might 18, attaining a wind of 160 mph. Amphan made landfall in West Bengal on Might 20 at a one-minute sustained wind of 100 mph, inflicting important destruction.

Bay Of Bengal Islands

Andaman and Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands is without doubt one of the most distinguished group of islands situated within the Bay of Bengal.

There are quite a few islands within the Bay of Bengal. Some islands that existed above the bay floor about 80 to 68 million years in the past have since submerged within the water. Nonetheless, satellite tv for pc photos of the bay present islands distributed throughout the bay’s geographical space. 

Essentially the most distinguished islands within the Bay of Bengal are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. These island teams separate the bay from the Andaman Sea. The Andaman Island group is situated 130.357 km from the southwest coast of Myanmar. India possesses many of the Andaman Islands, besides the Preparis and Cocos Islands. The Andaman Islands includes 572 islands, overlaying roughly 6407 km2, and has about 343,000 individuals (2011). The Andaman’s largest island is the Nice Andaman, consisting of 200 islands (seven main islands) and overlaying 4825 km2.

The Nicobar Islands are situated about 150 km north of Sumatra, Indonesia. The island group is made up of twenty-two islands and covers an space of roughly 711 km2. Roughly 37,000 individuals reside on the assorted islands. The Better Nicobar Island is Nicobar’s largest, overlaying 922 km2 and has a inhabitants of about 8,067 individuals. It’s designated a biosphere reserve by UNESCO.

Main Rivers Coming into The Bay Of Bengal

Bay of Bengal map
Map of the Bay of Bengal
Rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal map
Rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal map.

The Bay of Bengal receives massive portions of recent water from the river runoff and extra precipitation. A number of rivers movement and discharge into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers are of various lengths and originate principally inside the Bengal area.

The Ganges Delta is the biggest river delta draining into the Bay of Bengal. It’s also the world’s largest river delta and includes a number of river programs, together with the Ganges River and Brahmaputra River. 60% of the river delta is in Bangladesh and the remaining in India. The Ganges River is 2,704 km lengthy and originates from the Western Himalayas. Brahmaputra River is 4,696 km lengthy and likewise originates from the Himalayas.

Different main rivers emptying into the Bay of Bengal embody the Padma, Barak, Irrawaddy, Baitarani, Godavari, Brahmani, Krishna, Mahanadi, and Kaveri.   

Marine Life And Protected Areas

Sundarbans mangrove forest
The mangrove forests of the Sundarbans alongside the Bay of Bengal is host to nice biodiversity together with the Bengal tiger. Emdadul Hoque Topu /

The Bay of Bengal is without doubt one of the international 64 largest marine ecoregions. It hosts numerous species of wildlife, diverging amongst estuaries, mangroves, and coral reefs. The bay has over 40 fish species, together with scad, anchovy, grouper mackerel, shrimp, tuna, emperor, and shark. Tuna is without doubt one of the most caught fish within the Bay of Bengal. Sharks are uncommon within the bay as a consequence of human actions. Silky and tiger sharks are susceptible and infrequently seen. Mammals discovered within the Bay of Bengal embody the Bengal tiger, grey mongoose, chital deer, pangolin, and flying fox.

The Bay of Bengal’s coastal areas options protected space and historic and spiritual websites. A few of the protected areas embody Bhitarkanika Nationwide Park (with greater than 60 mangrove species), Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary (hosts saltwater crocodiles, sea turtles, and over 50,000 migratory birds), Teknaf Sport Reserve (wild elephants and birds), and Sundarbans Nationwide Park (world’s largest mangrove forest).

Human Settlements Alongside The Bay Of Bengal

Colombo, Sri Lanka
The town of Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka, is without doubt one of the largest settlements alongside the Bay of Bengal

The Bay is dwelling to tens of millions of individuals of numerous cultures and religions, influenced by the bay’s distinctive options. For hundreds of years, people have settled and derived their livelihood from the bay, with the primary settlement relationship again to the Previous Stone Age interval. Right this moment, a number of populous cities and settlements are situated alongside the Bay of Bengal.

Kolkata, India, is without doubt one of the largest cities close to the Bay of Bengal with a inhabitants of 4.5 million individuals. It’s India’s cultural capital and residential to the oldest working port. Another necessary Indian cities alongside the bay embody Kakinada (384,000 individuals), and Krishnapatnam (6,000). Colombo, Sri Lankan industrial capital, is one other populous settlement alongside the bay. It his dwelling to about 753,000 individuals. Chittagong, Bangladesh, has about 8.6 million individuals inside its metropolitan space.

Economic system

Visakhapatnam port
Visakhapatnam port is a second largest port by cargo dealt with in India and is situated on the Bay of Bengal.

The Bay of Bengal brings collectively two geopolitical blocs in Southeast Asia and South Asia; the South Asian Affiliation for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Affiliation of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Traditionally, the bay has served as an necessary commerce and transport route, linking varied nations bordering the Indian Ocean. It attracted a number of buying and selling ventures, together with the British West India Firm.

A number of littorals and landlocked nations across the Bay of Bengal have shaped a world group referred to as the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Financial Cooperation to facilitate free commerce inside the bay.

In addition to the worldwide commerce and engagement between nations, the bay can also be supporting thriving fishing and tourism industries. It helps near 31% of the world’s coastal fisherman. The widespread catch contains sardine, scad, snapper, tuna, and shrimp. The annual complete catch exceeds 4 million tons or $6 billion. Tourism is among the many key focus space within the BIMSTEC, with the potential to generate over $200 billion. 



Floor Space

2,600,000 km2

Most Depth

4,694 m

Common Depth

2,600 m 

Most Size

2,090 km

Most Width

1,610 km

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