For quotation functions:
Araujo RZ, Gomez RS, de Castro WH, Lehman LFC. Differential prognosis of antral pseudocyst, surgical ciliated cyst, and mucocele of the maxillary sinus. Annals of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgical procedure 2014 Could 04;2(1):10.
R Araujo1*, R Gomez1*, W Castro1, L Lehman1
(1) Federal College of Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil
* Corresponding writer E-mail:
of the maxillary sinus, together with antral pseudocysts, surgical ciliated cysts, and mucoceles of the
maxillary sinus, might pose a diagnostic problem. These circumstances are sometimes
misdiagnosed, compromising the following scientific and surgical method. Though these lesions might current with comparable scientific and imaginological options, their differential prognosis is essential for proper remedy planning owing to their distinct organic behaviour. The aim of this paper is to report one case of every of those circumstances, along with a
dialogue of their differential prognosis and remedy plan.
In case 1, affected person was a candidate for orthognathic surgical procedure. A pre-operative cone beam computed tomographic confirmed a hyperdense
domed-shaped picture above the primary and second molars, and with the provisional prognosis of antral pseudocyst, no particular remedy carried out. Case 2, affected person complained of sunshine intermittent discomfort on the
left facet of her maxilla for over a 12 months and had a historical past of orthognathic surgical procedure involving each jaws carried out 19 years in the past. Radiographic picture
confirmed a well-circumscribed hypodense space within the maxilla above the left first molar and an excisional biopsy was carried out, which in the end confirmed the prognosis of surgical ciliated cyst. In Case 03, affected person offered with a
historical past of a painful swelling on the left facet of his face, which began 6 months earlier. Magnetic Resonance Picture confirmed a hyperdense lesion, occupying the left maxillary sinus and an the surgical excision of the lesion, confirmed the mucocele of the maxillary sinus prognosis.
Owing to their comparable radiographic options and asymptomatic displays, AP, SCC, and MMS may be misdiagnosed. Scientific indicators and signs, affected person historical past, and
ample radiographic analysis are essential to make correct selections relating to their preliminary prognosis and subsequent remedy plans.
Completely different pathologic circumstances
can have an effect on the maxillary sinuses and are continuously confused and misinterpreted. These lesions embrace the antral pseudocyst (AP), surgical ciliated cyst (SCC), and mucocele of the maxillary sinus (MMS). The number of
phrases used for every of those lesions is itself suggestive of the truth that these entities are poorly understood[1,2]. In
a number of circumstances, due to an improper differential
prognosis, the inaccurate remedy plan
is chosen for that particular lesion.
Of their early phases particularly, AP, SCC,
and MMS could also be asymptomatic and current with comparable radiographic options, which might trigger misdiagnosis. In some conditions, a biopsy is critical to verify prognosis, however in others, prognosis depends solely on scientific and radiographic grounds[1,3]. Subsequently, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, radiologists, and pathologists have to keep in mind options concerned within the
differential prognosis of those cystic lesions for his or her right remedy. The aim
of this paper is to report one case of every of those circumstances and to debate acceptable differential prognosis and remedy.
Case 1: Antral Pseudocyst (AP)
A 19-year-old feminine
affected person offered to the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgical procedure of Clinics Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil,
as a candidate for orthognathic
surgical procedure. Her chief complaints had been chewing dysfunction and dissatisfaction together with her facial aesthetics. The
affected person was medically match and denied a historical past of any native or systemic illness. Upon scientific
analysis, maxillary retrognathism was recognized, however no extra-oral pathological alteration was noticed. Intra-oral examination confirmed good periodontal well being and a Class III malocclusion. No mucosal lesions had been noticed and the affected person did
not complain of any such signs. A cone beam
computed tomographic (CBCT) scan
was requested to enrich the planning course of for orthognathic surgical procedure. A hyperdense
domed-shaped picture was famous above the primary and second molars, filling a part of
the fitting maxillary sinus ground (Determine 1). For the reason that affected person had no indicators or signs of maxillary sinus involvement, the provisional prognosis was deemed AP, and it was
proposed that no particular remedy for this be carried out. The beforehand deliberate orthognathic surgical procedure was carried out with out transoperative or postoperative complication. On the 10-month follow-up examination of the affected person throughout the postoperative interval, the affected person had no scientific
indicators or signs suggestive of maxillary sinus pathology.
A well-defined hyperdense unilocular dome-shaped picture above the fitting maxillary molars. Typical picture of antral pseudocyst.
Case 2: Surgical Ciliated Cyst of the Maxilla (SCC)
A 42-year-old feminine
affected person offered to the Service of Oral
and Maxillofacial Surgical procedure of HC-UFMG in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, complaining of sunshine intermittent discomfort on the left facet of her maxilla for over a
12 months. The affected person had a historical past of orthognathic
surgical procedure involving each jaws carried out 19 years in the past. On the time of
surgical procedure, the maxillary segments had been stabilised with
metal wires. She denied a historical past of systemic illness and drug or tobacco use. No extra-oral alterations had been noticed. Intra-oral examination revealed good periodontal well being and no lacking enamel or mucosal lesions. A CBCT scan was requested and confirmed a well-circumscribed hypodense space in
the maxilla above the left first molar; the hypodense space was spherical in form and
speaking with the ground of the maxillary sinus on the superior a part of the lesion (Determine 2).
CBCT parasagittal view of the surgical ciliated cyst. Properly-circumscribed round-shaped unilocular hypodense space, noticed contained in the maxillary bone, speaking with the maxillary sinus, in a affected person with a historical past of orthognathic surgical procedure.
Electrical pulp exams confirmed
that the left posterior maxillary enamel had been very important. The provisional prognosis was of SCC,
and so an excisional biopsy was carried out. A mucoperiosteal flap was lifted to allow a Caldwell–Luc
method to the maxillary sinus. A 1.5-cm-wide window of bone was faraway from the maxilla above the fitting first molar apices. This process uncovered a fluid-filled membranous sac from which a transparent
straw-coloured fluid was then aspirated.
Owing to the skinny and friable cyst capsule, the cyst wall was perforated throughout surgical procedure (Determine 3). Your entire cyst
was then enucleated for histopathological evaluation, which
in the end confirmed the prognosis of SCC (Determine 4).
Within the postoperative interval, the affected person offered with out issues or complaints
of the earlier signs. A postoperative
CBCT confirmed new bone formation within the
area beforehand occupied by the cyst.
No scientific or radiographic indicators or signs had been famous on the 14-month follow-up examination.
Caldwell–Luc method for excisional biopsy of surgical ciliated cyst. The skinny and friable capsule might disrupt throughout surgical procedure.
Histologic image of the surgical ciliated cyst displaying pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium containing mucous cells.
Case 3: Mucocele of the Maxillary Sinus (MMS)
A 59-year-old male
affected person offered to the Service of Oral
and Maxillofacial Surgical procedure of HC-UFMG in Belo
Horizonte, Brazil, complaining of a painful swelling on the left facet of his face, which
began about 6 months earlier. The affected person denied
historical past of every other illness or of drug or tobacco
use. Upon extra-oral scientific
examination, a discreet swelling
of the left facet of his face was famous. Intra-oral examination revealed partially edentulous maxillary and mandibular arches, in addition to a gentle swelling with shortening of the vestibule within the posterior
area of the left facet of the maxilla, which was
painful on palpation. Because the
affected person offered to our Service with a magnetic resonance picture (MRI) of the top and neck area, no additional investigations had been requested. The MRI
confirmed a hyperdense lesion, with homogeneous borders, occupying the left maxillary sinus. The photographs additionally instructed that the lesion was extremely intensive, suggesting bony enlargement, erosion,
and invasion into the nasal cavity (Determine 5). An
incisional biopsy was carried out underneath native anaesthesia. Histopathological examination of the cyst confirmed a fibrous capsule lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium, which transitioned to non-keratinised squamous epithelium. The prognosis was MMS. The affected person
was positioned underneath normal anaesthesia, and a mucoperiosteal flap was raised to entry
the maxillary sinus. An osteotomy, measuring about 2.5 cm in width of the
anterior wall of the maxilla was carried out
to method the lesion. Regardless of the friable cyst capsule, the
lesion was eliminated utterly (Determine 6).
Axial and coronal MRI views of mucocele of the maxillary sinus displaying a homogeneous and well-circumscribed lesion, with a excessive sign picture. The black arrow factors to preliminary invasion of the nasal cavity.
Mucoperiosteal flap and creation of a window to entry the maxillary sinus for full elimination of the lesion.
Restoration was uneventful, with
decision of the deleterious indicators and signs. The ultimate histopathological analysis confirmed the preliminary prognosis of MMS (Determine 7).
After a follow-up of 10 months, no signal
of recurrence was noticed.
Histologic image of mucocele of the maxillary sinus displaying pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium.
Antral Pseudocyst (AP)
The AP is the commonest cyst or pseudocyst of the maxillary sinus. Some authors have famous a seasonal variation in its prevalence, claiming it to be
extra widespread within the winter due to an infection of the higher airways.
The AP is a set of
inflammatory serum exudate that will have been attributable to one of many following circumstances: periapical or periodontal odontogenic an infection, an infection of the
sinus or allergic sinusitis.
The buildup of this inflammatory exudate happens beneath the periosteum, forcing the sinusal lining away from the bone. Since APs are
normally asymptomatic, they’re continuously detected upon routine radiographic examination. The radiographic presentation of the AP is of a solitary
dome-shaped, radiopaque mass located within the ground of the sinus.
Microscopic examination of the AP reveals sinus mucosa displaced by cystic fluid. The mucosa is roofed by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium resting on a superficial layer of oedematous unfastened connective tissue, with persistent irritation of variable depth. Because the AP doesn’t
have particular or attribute histopathological
options, its prognosis will not be attainable with out acceptable scientific and radiographic info.
Surgical Ciliated Cyst of the Maxilla (SCC)
First described by Gregory and
Shafer, the SCC is reported to be commonest in Japan. The
SCC doesn’t have an effect on all the sinus, at the very least initially. This cyst happens secondary to surgical procedure, trauma, or harm to the maxillary sinus, all of which can outcome within the formation of scar tissue and resultant entrapment of the sinus mucosa. Subsequently, the liner of the cyst originates from the maxillary sinus mucosa itself.
The SCC is commonly asymptomatic, particularly in early phases. Due to its potential to be domestically aggressive, some sufferers might complain of swelling, ache, or discomfort within the maxillary area, because the cyst progresses. A complete affected person historical past helps in guiding the preliminary prognosis. A historical past of a earlier Caldwell–Luc
process, or different sinus surgical procedure is continuously reported.
Radiographically, the SCC
seems as a spherical and well-circumscribed radiolucent or pretty radiopaque lesion. As
the cyst progresses, perforation, and enlargement into the maxillary sinus is seen. In case of enormous lesions, the differential prognosis from a MMS might not be attainable. CBCT or MRI
pictures might assist elucidate the cyst boundaries and its relation
with surrounding constructions.
Microscopically, the SCC is a
true cyst, lined
by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with mucous cells, although squamous
epithelium could also be noticed in some circumstances.
Mucocele of the maxillary sinus (MMS)
Poor drainage of the
sinus, ensuing from any situation that
obstructs the ostium, corresponding to inflammatory processes, allergic reactions, or malignant ailments, might outcome within the formation of a MMS[2,3]. Though mucoceles are
comparatively frequent within the paranasal sinuses,
particularly the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses,
within the maxillary sinus they’re uncommon, accounting for much less
than 10% of paranasal sinus.
The scientific indicators and signs of MMS rely principally
on its growth stage. In its early phases, sufferers could also be asymptomatic or current with complaints of headache, nasal congestion, swelling, or slight intermittent ache. With additional growth of the cystic lesion,
facial swelling, nasal discharge, and periorbital or dental ache might happen,
due to stress from the cyst. In circumstances in
which the mucocele invades the
orbital ground, it could actually trigger ocular displacement, nerve compression, and proptosis[10,11]. An infection may even convert a mucocele in a pyocoele.
On typical panoramic
radiographs, MMS presents as a rounded radiopaque mass, involving
the sinus ground or complete maxillary sinus. Since
MMS is normally invasive, bone erosion with medial extension into
the nasal cavity is continuously seen. CBCT or MRI could also be
useful to delimitate the lesion and consider the attainable broken surrounded constructions, which may even assist verify the correct surgical method. The histopathologic options of MMS are just like SCC of
The primary differential diagnoses of AP embrace sinus polyps, retention cysts, and mucoceles. Besides when it
develops within the ground of a sinus, sinus polyps are sometimes a number of and pendulous in look due to the impact of gravity; then again, AP is normally solitary or
bilateral. Moreover, whereas the sinus mucosa adjoining to sinus polyps is thickened by oedema,
with formation of fluid-filled areas, and the polyps are usually irregular formed and pendulous, the fluid in AP accumulates beneath the sinus mucosa and periosteum
and varieties a attribute dome-shape.
Retention cysts are shaped as a result of blockage of the ducts of
the seromucinous gland of the sinus could cause dilatation of the duct. These cysts are
normally small and should not even be evident clinically or radiographically. Nonetheless, when they’re giant,
they could have the identical look as AP and due to this fact differential prognosis will not be attainable on a purely radiographic foundation. Lastly, whereas retention cysts could also be
a number of and situated subsequent to the sinus ostium, pseudocysts are
normally solitary and have an effect on the ground of the
sinus. In Case
1, no cortical erosion or bone invasion by the AP was
noticed. As neither biopsy nor surgical procedures are vital
to diagnose AP, follow-up of the affected person
The differential prognosis of SCC is determined by its developmental part. If no
affiliation to the maxillary sinus is recognized, the
major prognosis is of one of many
a number of odontogenic benign lesions of the maxilla.
Within the preliminary phases, SCC might mimic AP,
polyps of the sinus, radicular cysts or residual cysts of the maxilla. In
circumstances by which perforation and enlargement of the
maxillary sinus are detected; nevertheless,
different hypotheses, corresponding to salivary
gland tumours, odontogenic tumours,
cysts, and malignant circumstances needs to be thought of. In Case 2, the
preliminary provisional prognosis of SCC was made on the
foundation of the historical past of orthognathic surgical procedure 19 years in the past, after which the sinus mucosa that was entrapped within the maxilla throughout therapeutic of the Le Fort I osteotomy developed the SCC.
Like SCC, the differential prognosis
of MMS is determined by its developmental stage
on the time of analysis. If no bone erosion is discovered,
MMS have to be differentiated from the commonest circumstances that have an effect on the maxillary sinus, corresponding to AP, persistent sinusitis, and sinus polyps. Different
benign lesions that must also be included within the differential prognosis are odontogenic and salivary gland tumours[11,14]. At later
phases of growth, MMS destroys bone. If that is
the case, malignant circumstances should even be
thought of within the differential prognosis;
these embrace adenoid cystic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, plasmocytoma, and
lymphoma. Some authors additionally declare that MMS in toddler
sufferers is related to cystic
fibrosis[16,17]. Chindasombatjaroen et al. counsel using MRIs to
higher determine cystic boundaries. Danger elements for recurrence embrace a number of mucoceles and extension
exterior the sinus wall. In Case
3, the affected person was referred shortly after
the preliminary signs. MRI confirmed preliminary invasion into the nasal cavity and erosion of the maxillary anterior wall. Though MRIs
delineate the enlargement clearly, CT or CBCT alone are ample examinations for
prognosis and surgical remedy plan.
On the entire, APs are normally inoffensive, self-limiting, and require no particular remedy. Nonetheless, periapical or periodontal inflammatory circumstances which can be generally related to APs
have to be investigated and handled appropriately. With time, APs have a tendency
to lower or disappear on their very own. Within the current case, for instance, 10 months after the preliminary analysis, no radiographic adjustments had been noticed and the lesion appeared to have regressed utterly.
Nonetheless, due to their invasive nature, MMS and SCC, should
be surgically eliminated[3,9,14,20]. Surgical entry
is determined by the scale of the lesion and the constructions
concerned by it.
In circumstances by which the SCC is separated from the maxillary sinus, a bony window on the maxillary
alveolar crest is critical for surgical elimination of the
cyst. In situations the place the cyst communicates with, or is
contained in the maxillary sinus, a Caldwell–Luc method is critical. Recurrence is feasible if the cyst is incompletely eliminated. Nonetheless, if correctly enucleated, recurrences are uncommon.
For MMS, a number of approaches are extensively cited in literature, together with marsupialisation,
exterior approaches, Caldwell–Luc procedures, and endoscopic sinus or trans-nasal surgical procedure[9,11,15,22,23,24]. The
recurrence price of mucoceles
of paranasal sinuses can range from 0.9% to 23%, and normally is extra widespread in sufferers with persistent paranasal sinus irritation or with a number of surgical procedure historical past[15,25]. In Case
3, a Caldwell–Luc
method was used, which provided acceptable visualisation of the
MMS, thereby assuring elimination of all the lesion. Lengthy-term follow-up appointments are obligatory.
Owing to their
comparable radiographic options and asymptomatic displays, AP, SCC, and MMS
may be misdiagnosed. Scientific indicators
and signs, affected person historical past, and ample radiographic
analysis are essential to make correct selections relating to their preliminary prognosis and subsequent remedy plans.
Due to the retrospective and descriptive nature of this research, institutional moral assessment board
approval was not wanted. The authors state that the Declaration of Helsinki tips had been adopted. Written affected person
consent has been obtained to publish scientific
1. Gardner D. Pseudocyst and retention cyst of the maxillary sinus. J Oral Surg. 1984;58:561-67.
2. Barsley R, Thunthy Ok, Weir,
J. Maxillary sinus mucocele. Report of an uncommon case. J Oral Surg. 1984;58:499-505.
3. Gardner D, Gullane P. Mucoceles of the
maxillary sinus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral
4. Neville B, Damm D, Allen C, Bouquot J.
Oral and maxillofacial pathology. Philadelphia, PA,
WB Saunders Firm; 1995.p267-269.
5. Allard R, Van der Kwast W, Van der Waal
I. Mucosal antral cysts: assessment of the literature and report of a radiographic survey. Oral Surg. 1981;51:2-9.
6. Gregory G, Shafer W. Surgical ciliated cysts of the maxilla: report of circumstances. J Oral Surg. 1958;16:251-53.
7. Miller R, Longo J, Houston
G. Surgical ciliated cyst of the maxilla. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1988;46:310-12.
8. Chindasombatjaroen J, Kakimoto N, Murakami S, Furukawa S, Kishino M. Postoperative maxillary cysts: magnetic resonance imaging in contrast with computerized tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:e38-e44.
9. Obeso S,
Llorente J, Rodrigo J, Sánchez R, Mancebo G, Suárezet C.
Paranasal sinuses mucoceles: our expertise in 72 sufferers. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2009;60(5):332-39.
10. Martin R, Jackman D, Philbert R,
McCoy J. Large proptosis of the globe. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000;58:794-99.
11. Chang Y, Kang B. Idiopathic Maxillary Sinus Mucocele. J Med
12. Pierse J, Stern A. Benign
cysts and tumors of the paranasal sinuses. Oral Maxillofacial Surg Clin N
13. Leung Y, Wong W, Cheung
L. Surgical ciliated cysts might mimic radicular cysts or
residual cysts of maxilla: report of three circumstances. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:e264-e69.
14. Marques J, Figueiredo R, Aguirre-Urizar J, Berini-Aytés L,
Homosexual-Escoda C. Root resorption attributable to a maxillary sinus mucocele:
a case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011;111:e37-e40.
15. Har-El G. Endoscopic
administration of 108 sinus mucoceles.
16. April M, Zinreich S, Baroody F, Naclerio
R. Coronal CT scan abnormalities in youngsters with persistent sinusitis.
17. Al-Dousary S, Al-Kharashi S. Maxillary
sinus mucopyocele in youngsters: a case report and assessment of literature. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1996;36:53-60.
18. Mardinger O, Manor I, Mijiritsky E, Hirshberg A.
Maxillary sinus augmentation within the presence of antral
pseudocyst: a scientific method. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral
Radiol Endod. 2007;103:180-84.
19. Kara I, Kuçuk D, Polat S.
Expertise of maxillary sinus ground
augmentation within the presence of antral pseudocysts. J
Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:1646-50.
20. Kaygusuz I, Karlidag T, Akyigit A, Yalcin S. Mucocele
related to an ectopic tooth within the maxillary sinus: a case report. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol Further. 2011;6:401-02.
21. Yoshikawa Y, Nakajima T, Kaneshiro
S, Sakaguchi M. Efficient remedy of the postoperative maxillary cyst by marsupialization. J
Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1982;40:487-91.
22. Su Y, Huang
H. Utility of an intranasal drill on transnasal endoscopic marsupialization of postoperative maxillary mucoceles.
Tzu Chi Med J. 2008;20:201-05.
23. Serrano E, Klossek J, Percodani J, Yardeni E, Dufour X.
Surgical administration of paranasal sinus mucoceles: a long-term research
of 60 circumstances. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;131:133-40.
24. Har-El G, Balwally A, Lucente F. Sinus
mucoceles: is marsupialization sufficient? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;117:633-40.
25. DuMayne M, Moya-Plana A, Malinvaud D, Laccourreye O, Bonfils P.
Sinus mucocele: Pure historical past
and long-term recurrence price. Eur Annals of
Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Illness. 2012;129:125-30.
Licensee to OAPL (UK) 2014. Inventive Commons Attribution License (CC-BY)