A case report.OA Case Reviews

For quotation functions:
Singh R. Enthesophyte on the radius: A case report. OA Case Reviews 2013 Jun 21;2(5):47.


R Singh*


Authors affiliations

Division of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

* Corresponding creator E mail:



Radius is a lateral bone of the forearm. The higher finish of the radius consists of head, neck and radial tuberosity. Tendon of the biceps brachi muscle is inserted into the posterior tough a part of radial tuberosity. The anterior clean a part of radial tuberosity is separated from the posterior half by bursa. On this case, bony projection from the posterior tough a part of radial tuberosity was noticed.

Case report

Throughout examination of radii within the osteology lab of King George’s Medical College, three radii (two radii of left palms and one in every of proper hand) out of 100 assorted radii have been noticed having longitudinal and transverse enthesophytes. The lengths, heights and thicknesses of those longitudinal enthesophytes within the left two radii have been 2.2/0.7/0.2 cm, 1.9/0.7/0.4 cm and a couple of.2/0.6/0.4 cm in a single proper radius. The lengths, heights and thicknesses of those transverse enthesophytes within the left two radii have been 1.1/0.3/0.2 cm, 0.8/0.2/0.2 cm and 0.7/0.1/0.1 cm in a single proper radius.


Enthesophytes could also be shaped resulting from overuse of the biceps brachi muscle. This further bony progress could impinge on the encircling constructions resulting in neurovascular issues and restriction of biomechanical actions of forearm.


This case can be of paramount significance to anatomists, radiologists and clinicians. The defect is virgin and seen for the primary time; so, this case has been reported.


Radius is the lateral bone of the forearm and is homologous with the tibia of the decrease limb. Its higher finish consists of a head which is disc-shaped and is roofed with hyaline cartilage. The neck is enclosed by the annular ligament. Tuberosity lies just under the medial a part of the neck. It has a tough posterior half and a clean anterior half. Exostosis arising from the posterior side of the tuberosity of radius, detected by the creator, isn’t described within the literature so far as the creator is aware of.

Exostoses that develop alongside joint margins are known as osteophytes. These bony growths shouldn’t be confused with enthesophytes that are bony projections on the attachment of a tendon or ligament[1]. Enthesophytes additionally seem on the toes, both alongside toes or the heels, in addition to on the palms. In excessive circumstances bony spurs have grown alongside an individual’s total skeletal construction—alongside the knees, hips, shoulders, ribs, arms and ankles. Such circumstances are solely exhibited with a number of exostoses.

This case describes enthesophytes on the posterior a part of radial tuberosity. The bony projection could injury the encircling constructions, inflicting tendinitis and spasm of the biceps resulting in restriction of actions making this examine helpful to anatomists, radiologists and clinicians. Subsequently, this case is reported.

Case Report

Throughout routine osteology lessons of undergraduate MBBS college students, three out of 100 radii have been discovered to have exostosis projecting from the posterior side of radial tuberosity. The incidence was 3%. The lengths, heights and thicknesses of those longitudinal enthesophytes (Determine 1) within the left two radii have been 2.2/0.7/0.2 cm, 1.9/0.7/0.4 cm and a couple of.2/0.6/0.4 cm in a single proper radius. The lengths, heights and thicknesses of those transverse enthesophytes (Determine 1) within the left two radii have been 1.1/0.3/0.2 cm, 0.8/0.2/0.2 cm and 0.7/0.1/0.1 cm in a single proper radius. Bony progress has additionally been seen alongside anterior a part of radial tuberosity which is occupied by bursa (as a layer on it). There was no different abnormality in these radii.

Exostosis from the posterior side of radial tuberosity of L1, L2 and R1 radius is proven right here. L represents the radius of the left facet and R represents the best facet (HR, head of radius; NR, neck of radius; TE, transverse a part of enthesophyte; LE, longitudinal a part of enthesophyte).


New bone can type at particular person entheses in response to a seronegative spondarthritis. Extra generally, they’re seen in a number of websites as a part of the situation first described within the backbone by Forrestier and Rotes-Quero[2] and now referred to as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH)[3]. Radiographs present an insensitive and insufficient approach of assessing osteophyte formation and enthesophyte adjustments[4].

Bony exostoses are widespread across the shoulder, hand and toes. They’ve additionally been reported on the posterior side of the superior floor of the olecranon means of ulna (unpublished knowledge), projecting in obturator foramen[5], arising from exterior occipital protuberance (unpublished knowledge) and arising from iliac crest[6]. Bony projection arising from radial tuberosity has not been described within the literature and in commonplace textbooks.

Mechanism of formation of bony projection on the posterior side of radius

Musculoskeletal problems are related to the formation of latest bone at two primary websites: the joint margin (osteophytosis) and ligament and tendon insertions (enthesophyte formation)[7]. The commonest sorts of bony change seen in grownup skeletons embrace osteophytes and enthesophyte formation[8].

Each osteophyte and enthesophyte may be considered skeletal responses to emphasize. Biceps which causes suppination of forearm is chargeable for the screwing motion. When this muscle is overused/strained there could also be microtrauma within the tendon which can in the end ossify giving rise to exostosis as on this case.

As a result of overstretching of the muscle the periosteum could have been elevated exposing underlying osteocytes within the osteogenic layer which could have laid down the bone.

Enthesophytes can type in response to the irritation of the enthesis occurring in seronegative spondarthropathies and in response to repetitive pressure, as within the spiking of tibial spines seen in footballers[9]. Enthesophytes seen on this examine could also be resulting from irritation of the enthesis of radius occurring in seronegative spondarthropathies.

A number of idiopathic enthesophytes are attribute of DISH3. Thus bony projections of radius could also be a part of DISH.

The individual could be affected by calcium metabolism dysfunction which predisposes for calcium deposition in tendon resulting in its ossification.

There could also be failure within the remodelling course of throughout endocondral ossification of the radius.

Clinically exostosis could impinge on the tendon of biceps inflicting tendinitis resulting in ache and restriction of biomechanical actions of the forearm. Not solely this, the radial artery crosses the biceps tendon close to its insertion which can also be vulnerable to being broken by these bony projections. The amount of exostosis could create compression of constructions within the shut proximity of this exterior bony progress. The radiological picture can be modified by the presence of exostosis which can confuse or mislead the radiologists. Numerous precaution is taken, when this a part of the bone is fractured by exterior trauma, in managing the remedy of the fracture by orthopaedic surgical procedure.


Thus, data of those enthesophyte of radius could also be of utmost use to anatomists as a brand new variant, radiologists for avoiding misinterpretation of radiographs and clinicians for administration of ache and restriction of actions round this area.

Authors contribution

All authors contributed to conception and design, manuscript preparation, learn and accepted the ultimate manuscript.


All authors abide by the Affiliation for Medical Ethics (AME) moral guidelines of disclosure.

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Licensee to OAPL (UK) 2013. Inventive Commons Attribution License (CC-BY)

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